In the fall of 1930 , the young Shostakovich is working in the composition of a new opera , a dark painting of the province and prison conditions in Russia but also an unvarnished portrait of the sexual desires of her heroine . Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk is created January 22, 1934 in Leningrad and two days later in Moscow under the title Katerina Ismaïlova . Combining the grotesque and tragic opera itself as one of the great scores of the twentieth century , one of those books that permanently marks the spirit . It will be shown hundreds of times in the Soviet Union until the publication in Pravda on January 28, 1936 from an anonymous article, "The Chaos replaces the music," which violently attacks the composer and his work. Stalin , Molotov, Mikoyan and Zhdanov , who attended on January 26 to a representation of the sultry Lady Macbeth at the Bolshoi , were left outraged . There is little doubt that Stalin himself was involved in the writing of this article that will suddenly disappear lapidary work of Soviet scenes. Almost eighty years later, Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk has lost none of its wild strength.